Malaysian Journal of Sport Science and Recreation
Volume 19(1) 2023
Table Of Content
e -ISSN 2735-1238
FACTORS INFLUENCE ON PERCEIVED ACADEMIC STRESS AMONG SPORTS STUDENT DURING ONLINE LEARNING
Siti Nur Dianah Binti Ahmad Jani, and Wahidah Binti Tumijan*
Academic life for students was filled with stress and strain. Physical activity, on the other hand, may help people manage their stress levels. Sports students, as all known, are physically active. However, many factors influence perceived academic stress, such as body weight, the semester in question, and gender. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence perceived academic stress among sports students during online learning. 217 sports students (84=male, 133=female) are involved. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) – Long Form questionnaire was measured students’ level of physical activity participation and the Perception of Academic Stress Scale (PASS) questionnaire used to measure academic stress. Other’s variables are measured in demographic profiles. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression to investigate the factors that influence perceived academic stress among sports students during online learning. From the study, 77.40% (n=168) of the students were highly involved in physical activity and the students agreed the perceived academic stress was high for the workload given during online learning, following pressure of perform, academic self-perception and time restraints. The results of the regression indicated the predictor explained 2.6% of the variance (F (1, 215) = 5.73, p=0.018, with an R2 of 0.026). It was found that stay during online learning significantly predicted perceived academic stress (β = .16, p<.001), as did agreeableness (β = -.36, p>=0.018). In conclusion, the data imply that, while many factors influence perceived academic stress, the results in this study were non-significant. Only stay during online learning yielded significant results out of the five parameters indicated.
Keywords: perceived academic stress, physical activity, sports’ students
THE ROLE OF SPORTS MEGA - EVENTS IN THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF CITIES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Changqing Xiang, Wenting Dong, Tengku Fadilah binti Tengku Kamalden*, Normala Ismail, Jie Zhao, Xiaoming Yang, & Hua Luo
Despite the known contribution of sports events to cities, especially affected by COVID-19 pandemic, residents hold different attitudes to this, for some citizens, sports events continue to play a vital role in cities sustainable development and may contribute to improved life condition and infrastructure in cities, but others do not think so. Although the benefits of sports events are commonly reported, the reasons why some cities and citizens willing to hold sports events are not well understood. This systematic review aimed to identify studies from the literature that the importance of sport mega-events in cities sustainable development synthesize and discuss the reasons for willing to hold sports events reported in the literature. Searches of the e-journal databases including Science Direct, Sport Discus, Scopus, Social Science Citation Index and Arts & Humanities Citation Index were performed. Studies were included that evaluated importance of sports events in cities sustainable development and residents’ attitudes because this is the key point to promote sports events development. The studies included in this review used qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods designs, were peer reviewed, and were published in the English language before the search date. Results: There are 2036 studies identified and after exclusions 30 studies were included in the review (9 qualitative, 10 quantitative, and 11 mixed methods). The review presents several features and findings from the studies, including a description and systematization the role of sports megaevents for cities sustainable development and the main reasons that cities and citizens willing to hold sports events (e.g. increasing job chances, improving the visibility of the city, and taking advantage of opportunities to develop economy). The finding suggest that sports events are an integral part of sustainable development of the city, and sports mega-events were identified as contributing to the city development. Cities and citizens can benefit from various sports events with regard to their development. Sports events play an important role in the sustainable development of cities, and contribute to the political, economic and cultural development of the city. The development of sports events and strategies to promote sustainable urban development should focus on these aspects after COVID-19.
Keywords: Sports events, Sustainable development, Epidemic, City, Factors.
E-LEARNING MOTIVATION AMONG STUDENT-ATHLETES OF UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA (UiTM), MALAYSIA.
Vincent Parnabas*, Nagoor Meera Abdullah, Mohamad Nizam Mohamed Shapie,
Mohamad Rahizam Abdul Rahim, Julinamary Parnabas, Antoinette Mary Parnabas,
Mona Isa, & Mohamad Idrakisyah.
The greatest challenge for educators during the pandemic Covid 19 situation today is to motivate their students to adopt e-learning. Therefore, it is important for lecturers in higher institutions to understand how to motivate their learners in choosing the types of motivation. Motivation refers to the concern with arousal, direction and persistence of behaviour towards the achievement of a specific goal, which classified into intrinsic and extrinsic. The objective of this study is to explore the types of motivation in adopting e-learning among the student-athletes of Sport Science and Recreation Faculty at University Technology MARA (UiTM), Malaysia. One hundred and twenty student t- athletes participated in this study. They were categorized into four ranking known as national, state, district and university based on their achievement in sports. The overall result showed that the student-athletes have the highest level of motivation in External Regulation (mean= 27.51), followed by Introjected Regulation (mean= 25.74), Identified Regulation (mean= 22.32), Amotivation (mean= 20.34), Intrinsic Motivation to Experience (mean= 17.17), Intrinsic Motivation to Know (mean= 15.31) and Intrinsic Motivation to Accomplish (mean= 12.55). Furthermore, national level athletes scored higher mean in both types of e-learning motivation except for Amotivation. In contrast, university ranking studentathletes scored the lowest on all the types of motivations for e-learning but highest in Amotivation. The findings obtained in this study supported by Self-Determination theory that e-learning involves the interaction of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Therefore, educators should use intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation to enhance the e learning habits among student-athletes to increase their performance in academic. Keywords: E-Learning, motivation, student-athletes, educators
PERFORMANCE OF CARDIO-PULMONARY RESUSCITATION AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS IN A MILITARY MEDICAL FACULTY
Hasliza Abu Hassan, Aida Jaffar*, & Victor Feizal
Cardiac arrest is an escalating public health problem as it contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, accounting for almost 15–20% of all deaths. Cardiac arrest may also occur among active individuals, such as during sports activities. Hence, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is crucial and proven to prevent cardiac death when correctly performed. Precise CPR techniques do improve a patient’s prognosis and reduces complications. This study aimed to determine CPR knowledge among medical students in our medical faculty. This was a cross-sectional study involving 106 students in year 1, 2 and 5, with a response rate of 76.8%. A structured questionnaire was distributed among the students and included sociodemographic data collection and questions on CPR knowledge based on the CPR teaching module. More than half the students were male (58.5%) with a mean age of 21.6 (±1.71) years. The students' ethnicity comprised Malay (62.3%), Indian (26.4%) and Chinese (11.3%). The student subject proportions were 32.1% from year 1, 34.9% from year 2 and 33.0% from year 5. A majority were cadet students (71.7%). The preferred study method was self-study followed by study group. More than quarter of them used YouTube videos to improve their understanding, and only 5.7% used e-learning. As for CPR knowledge, 89.9% of the students passed the CPR assessment. Female students (p=0.04) and Year 5 students (p=0.006) were significantly associated with good CPR performance. Medical students be updated current CPR knowledge as CPR techniques evolve. The faculty needs to be proactive in delivering effective teaching methods and tools to improve CPR knowledge among our medical students to prepare them for future job practice.
Keywords: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Cardiac arrest, Knowledge, Techniques, Effective teaching
EFFECTS OF RAMADAN FASTING TOWARD STRESS USING THE DASS-42 SCORING SYSTEM
Sayid Ridho*, & Akbar Maulana AK
Problems in college faced by students can cause stress. Ramadan fasting is beneficial for physical, psychic, and emotional health, among which it can reduce stress. This study aimed to understand the effect of Ramadan fasting on stress of preclinical medical students at UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta. The design of this study was prospective cohort analytic with a cross-sectional approach with a one group pre-test and post-test design. The consecutive sampling method was used for 242 respondents. To collect the data, the DASS-42 questionnaires are used. The Wilcoxon test were used to analyse the data. We found that 52 (21.5%) were experiencing stress while 190 (78.5%) were normal. The findings revealed that the stress scores fell during the pre-to post-Ramadan period for all subjects (p=0.000) either stress (p=0.000) or normal students (p=0.000). Based on the results, we found that Ramadan fasting can affect the stress scores of preclinical medical students in both normal and stressful students.
Keywords: stress, Ramadan fasting, preclinical medical students.
ROLES OF COACH’S BEHAVIOUR IN AFFECTING THE PROSOCIAL AND ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOUR IN ATHLETES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Fariha Mohammad Fazilah*, Jamilah Ahmad Radzi, Al Hafiz Abu Bakar, & Ahmad Fikri
Prosocial and antisocial behaviour have been utilized in sports exploration to allude proactive and inhibitive profound quality, whilst, individually with low degrees of antisocial behaviour reflecting inhibitive ethical quality. A wide range of coaching conduct affects the behavioural results of athletes. Athletes usually endorse sporting behaviour when coaches generate a mastery climate that accentuates learning, effort and enhancement as keys to success. Contrary to a performance climate that emphasises outperforming others and winning. Therefore, the primary aim of this study is to examine the past literature about the roles of the coach’s behaviour in affecting the prosocial and antisocial behaviour in athletes. This study carried out an extensive online assessment of the data source (Scopus and Web of Science) and a conference scheduled of possibly related papers. The search methods were restricted to studies published in English with full-text availability. A total of 39 studies were chosen from 58 total records. However, a few studies accepted for the review, of which two were selected in qualitative synthesis and thirteen studies selected in the quantitative synthesis. In these two published types of research, we filter out the data (Scopus and Web of Science). As a result, a sample of 15 dissertations and theses selected for systematic quality analysis. The findings systematically evaluate cross-sectional observation-based studies the coach-athlete relationship may be critically significant for thoughtful athletes’ moral behavior in sport. Thus, as a result, it is vital that the coaching approach may focus on the importance of establishing a sports environment that promotes positive behaviors and enables athletes to acquire a feeling of responsibility and self-regulation.
Keywords: Prosocial behaviors, Antisocial behaviors, Coach’s behaviors, Athlete’s, Moral behavior, Self-regulation
EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM PLYOMETRIC TRAINING ON LOWER EXTREMITY POWER, STRENGTH, ENDURANCE AND KICKING SPEED IN MALE COLLEGE SOCCER PLAYERS
Eng Hoe Wee*, Aik Hau Boon, & Hui Yin Ler
This study investigated the effects of 6 weeks plyometric training [PT] on leg power and strength and kicking velocity. Nineteen male soccer players (age = 19.2 + 1.3 years) were randomly assigned into control group (CG, n=9) and experimental group (EG, n=10) after pre-tests on the five measures (maximal ball velocity (MBV), squat jump [SJ], countermovement jump [CMJ], squat test [ST], and isokinetic leg strength.). Both groups performed similar bi-weekly soccer training program (technical, tactical, and matches) together, and EG also performed PT twice per week. Wilcoxon signed-rank test on the pre-test median scores between EG and CG showed insignificant differences in kicking speed, leg power, leg strength, and leg endurance. However, significant post-test comparison was found for leg strength (U=19.0, p=0.034) between EG and CG. In the pre and post-test comparisons, EG showed significant gains relative to CG in MBV (p < .05, d = 1.37), leg power (p < .05, d = 0.97), and leg strength (p < .05, d = 0.95) while CG only achieved significant improvement in the MBV (P < .05, d = 1.16). It concludes that adding plyometric training to regular soccer training improved leg strength in college soccer players.
Keywords: Plyometric training, maximal ball velocity, leg power, isokinetic leg strength, leg endurance
HIGH INTENSITY SHORT DURATION SOCCER FATIGUE SIMULATION REDUCED HAMSTRING ECCENTRIC STRENGTH IN ELITE U19 PLAYERS
Mohamad Azraie Bin Mohd Faozi, & Raja Mohammed Firhad Raja Azidin*
Previous studies found most soccer injuries occur during the latter stage of match-play suggesting fatigue as an important factor contributing to injuries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a high intensity, short duration soccer-specific fatigue simulation on hamstring eccentric strength among elite U19 soccer players. Twelve (n=12; age 18.3 ± 0.5 years; weight 62.3 ± 6.4 kg; height 171 ± 6.6 cm) elite U19 soccer players completed a soccerspecific fatigue simulation (SFS5 ) and isokinetic dynamometer protocol. Before exercise (time 0 min), immediately after SFS5 (time 5 min) and after 15 mins SFS5 (time 15 min), participants performed three maximal dominant limbs at 120°s-1 for eccentric hamstring muscle actions. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to identify significant differences between conditions and over time, with α=0.05. A significant time dependent reduction in hamstring eccentric at time 5 min (9.5%) and time 20 min (9.7%) was observed. These findings suggest eccentric training during fatigue state should be a primary consideration in injury prevention program. Our findings also recommended the inclusion of a short duration, high intensity soccer-specific fatigue simulation as part of pre-season hamstring strain injury risk screening and return to play assessment to ensure the effectiveness in identifying the markers of hamstring strain injury risk in soccer players.
Keywords: fatigue, hamstring, muscle strength, eccentric, soccer
EFFECT OF GENDER ON BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY DURING INCREASING INTENSITIES OF ISOMETRIC HAND GRIP EXERCISE IN UNTRAINED ADULTS
Faatihah Adeyinka Niyi-Odumosu*, & Mohammed Shahabu Meah
Gender influences blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV). The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gender on BP and HRV during increasing intensities of isometric hand grip (IHG) exercise. Nineteen (n=19) (10 males, 9 females) participants aged 25.7±0.9 and 27.0±0.6 years (Mean± SEM), with height and weight of 173.4±3.1 cm, 72.8±3.7kg and 160.9±1.6 cm, 59.3±3.4 kg volunteered after ethical approval. BP, HRV and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was measured at rest. Thereafter, participants underwent 30% MVC for 2 minutes during which BP and HRV was taken with 10 minutes rest. Contractions were amplified to 35, 40, 45% MVC. One-Way ANOVA compared Mean±SEM values at 95% significance. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) increased significantly in females (p<0.001) than males (p<0.01); diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increased significantly in both gender (p<0.001); average number of heart beats increased significantly in males (p<0.001) than females (p<0.01); significant increase in LF/HF ratio in females (p<0.01) but not in males. However, there was no significant difference in the standard deviation of N-N interval (SDNN), low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), very low frequency (VLF), root mean square of standard deviation (RMSSD), total frequency power (TFP), proportion of numbers of pairs of successive intervals (Pnn50) in both genders. This study may suggest a higher sympathetic influence (following rise in SBP and LF/HF ratio) in females than males during IHG exercise. Thus, variations exist in BP and HRV during short interval, altered intensities IHG exercise in both genders.
Keywords: Gender, heart rate variability, blood pressure, isometric handgrip exercise
STEM: A WEB-BASED SYSTEM FOR MANAGING TEST ARTIFACTS IN SOFTWARE TESTING COURSE
Nor Shahida Mohamad Yusop, Adib Suhaimi Mohd Fikri, & Nursyuhaila Yahaya
With the increasing demand for sophisticated and cost-effective software testing, many software industries are looking for highly skilled software testers. To meet that demand, many universities have offered software testing courses in their software engineering programs. At the Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences Universiti Teknologi MARA, software testing course was offered to Bachelor of Information System Engineering students in semester 5. As part of the course assessment, students are required to conduct system tests in which they need to design, execute, and document test cases. Currently, the use of Microsoft Word and Excel Spreadsheet to document test cases and test results are not effective for test case management. The most common problems experienced by the students when using Microsoft Word to manage test cases are: 1) difficulty to ensure document consistency when various team members update the test artifacts, 2) Unable to track and monitor the test status when the test results are kept individually, and 3) improper test-requirements traceability, since separate traceability documents need to be maintained and updated throughout the development life cycle. This paper reports on the development of STeM web-based system to assist the test case management in software testing course. The STeM serves as a collaborative platform for the students to build test cases, create requirements traceability, record test cases results, monitor test case status, and produce test report. In addition, lecturer can monitor the test progress through this system too.
Keywords—software engineering program, software testing course, test case management
A PERFORMANCE OF THE MALAYSIA RUGBY SEVENS TEAM BASED ON SELECTED PERFORMANCE INDICATORS ON A VARIOUS ASIA-LEVEL RUGBY SEVENS TOURNAMENT FROM 2018 - 2020.
Norasrudin bin Sulaiman*, Hasbullah bin Ismail, Hosni bin Hasan, & Raja Mohamad Firhad
bin Raja Azidin
Identification of performance indicators related to the status of the game (winning and losing) is needed for a tactical approach especially in improving the Malaysia Men’s Rugby Seven team. This study aims to characterize team performance indicators based on the game status of Malaysia men’s rugby sevens teams. A total of 16 matches (winning, n=8, losing, n=8) for the national team from various Asia-level tournaments from years 2018 to 2020 were collected using Sportscode performance analysis software and a notational analysis form. The performance indicators variables are extracted from the excel spreadsheet using the visual basic application of Microsoft excel before being exported to SPSS version 26 with the significant value is set at p<0.05. Based on the analysis, there is no significant difference in the winning performance and losing performance of the Malaysia Men’s Rugby Sevens Team. The finding from this research can be utilized by the coaches and practitioners in improving the rugby sevens team performance.
Keywords: Performance Analysis, Performance Indicators, Notational Analysis, Men’s rugby sevens.
SCADA ODL FLIPPED CLASSROOM: A CASE STUDY FOR THE SCHOOL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
Mahanijah Md Kamal*, & Noorfadzli Abd Razak
Using open and distance learning (ODL) for courses that included laboratory sessions was challenging to teach and learn during the COVID-19 era. SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition), also known as ESE691, is the School of Electrical Engineering elective that requires students to be present in the lab for their mini-project group assignments. During the outbreak, students were not permitted to attend the laboratory, but they were required to complete their assignments. The rapid transition from face-to-face delivery modalities to a flipped classroom will be more difficult for final-year electrical engineering students. As a result, the purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of students taking ESE691 in a flipped classroom environment from October 2020 to February 2021. The data was gathered using a qualitative method, and the results were analysed using SPSS. This survey had 68 participants, with 22 female students and 46 male students filling out a google form. The findings show that while using the ODL platform to create a flipped classroom for SCADA, the eight questions are critical. The implementation of the flipped classroom for the internal consistency test has a Cronbach's alpha of 0.819, which is sufficient for the questions' reliability.
Keywords—SCADA, online and distance learning, flipped classroom, questionnaire, SPSS
TRENDS IN TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED ONLINE LEARNING FOR LOW ACHIEVERS IN INTRODUCTORY PROGRAMMING: A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW
Mahfudzah Othman*, Siti Zulaiha Ahmad, Aznoora Osman, & Natrah Abdullah
Technology-enhanced online learning (tel) has been widely utilized in facilitating teaching and learning in higher academic institutions. although exhaustive studies have been done in investigating the usage and effectiveness of tel in programming education, there is still insufficiency of studies being done in utilization of tel in introductory programming specifically for low achievers who often faced with learning difficulties such as lack of motivation and interests, lack of problem-solving skills and logical thinking and the technical issues in the technologies used. therefore, this study investigates the trends of tel in introductory programming in terms of its pedagogical approach in addressing the difficulties faced by the low achievers and the online technologies needed to facilitate their learning through a systematic literature review study between the year 2017 till 2021. by adopting kitchenham’s methodology, a total of 20 papers have been selected from various journals and databases and we found that the trends of tel for low achievers in introductory programming comprised of six main online educational technologies, which are the web-based learning, mobile learning, multimedia learning, gamification, block-based programming and virtual reality or robot simulations. the findings from this review can be used for future research in utilizing tel in the field of programming education, especially for low achievers.
Keywords: technology-enhanced online learning, introductory programming, teaching and learning, low achievers
MAPPING OF SDGS IN THE ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE CURRICULUM AT UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
Zainab Mohd Noor, Masria Mustafa, & Rozzana Mohd Said*
Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are central players in the achievement of the SDGs. As many HEIs strive to embrace sustainability as one of the university's core values and increase the visibility of the institutions globally, there is a need to explore the embedded curriculum framework of SDGs into programs and courses offered at Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM). This study is to determine the percentage of SDGs elements that have been incorporated into the university curriculum. The methodology used includes data collection using the university online syllabus system for the science and engineering and technology fields, namely all the engineering fields, Civil, Mechanical, Electrical, and Chemical Engineering, and Computer Sciences, and analyzing the results for in-depth interpretation and dimension analysis. A total of 520 courses were analyzed. The results showed that three SDGs were not addressed by the curriculum. The highest percentage of courses were mapped to SDG9 (25%) followed by SDG4 (15%), SDG 11 and SDG12 at 12%. The SDGs elements were found to be highly incorporated in mechanical engineering compared to other disciplines. The finding helps the understanding of the baseline status of sustainability in the university curriculum and opportunities to improve. It is suggested that another review needs to be executed to include the three SDGs which were addressed in the current curriculum. When all SDGs are addressed, the outcomes of the curriculum will be global graduates who are knowledgeable and responsible in ensuring a harmonized and peaceful future.
Keywords: SDG-embedded curriculum, SDG-mapped courses, university curriculum
COMPARISON BETWEEN SPORTS DRINK AND COCONUT WATER ON CARDIOVASCULAR ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE AMONG FOOTBALL PLAYERS
Siti Soraya Mohd Elias*, Muhammad Alif Zulkifli, & Noor Fatihah Ilias
A sports drink is a drink containing electrolytes and glucose, meanwhile coconut drink is known as a natural source of sports drink. Both drinks have the benefit of restoring energy and electrolyte, especially when ingested during strenuous physical activity that requires maximum endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sports drinks and coconut drinks in enhancing cardiovascular endurance performance among UiTM football players. A total of 24 male participants representing Universiti Teknologi MARA Football Club (UiTM FC) were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned into three groups that are isotonic drink group (IDG) (n=8), the coconut drink group (CDG) (n=8), and the control group (n=8). Cardiovascular endurance performance was determined based on bleep test results at the pre-test and post-test. The intervention was conducted by giving a different type of drink according to the assigned group. IDG received 100 plus isotonic drink, CDG received a Vita Coco drink and CG were only given plain water. After the end of the pre-test session, the participants were given 2-hour to rest, and drinks were given according to their group. After 2-hour of rest, the participants continue with the post-test. The level of VO2 max was measured by an equation based on the bleep test results. The result shows there was a significant increment in pre-post-test VO2 max level within all groups, showing improvement in the mean level of VO2 max at post-test. The mean of pre-post-test VO2 max for the three respective groups was IDG 47.53 ± 6.32 to 49.46 ± 5.88 ml/kg/min, CDG 47.01 ± 3.45 to 48.81 ± 3.29 ml/kg/min and CG 47.06 ± 3.11 to 47.91 ± 3.43 ml/kg/min. However, there was no significant difference (p=0.276) between groups and pre-post-test VO2 max level. Looking at between groups effect, there was no significant effect (p=0.900) between these three groups and their VO2 max level. In conclusion, there was a significant positive change in the participant's pre-post-test VO2 max level for all three groups across two different periods at the pre-test and post-test. This suggests ingesting drinks between exercises substantially improved football players' cardiovascular endurance performance. However, there was no significant difference in the participants' cardiovascular endurance performance between the three groups. This indicates the type of drink does not influence the cardiovascular endurance performance among these football players.
Keywords: Sports drink, coconut drink, endurance performance, football players
Malaysian Journal of Sport Science and Recreation
Volume 19.(2) 2023
Table Of Content
ISSN 1823-3198 e -ISSN 2735-1238
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY TREND DURING COVID-19 MOVEMENT RESTRICTION ORDER AMONG UiTM STUDENTS
Kalam Azad Isa, Nur Liyana Mohd Irwan, Nur Atikah Mohamed Kasim, Rozella Ab Razak & M. Adli Mohd Sidi
The government of Malaysia has implemented a Movement Restriction Order (MCO) curfew on all citizens to prevent the Covid-19 pandemic from spreading. Studies have suggested that a long period of MCO will decrease overall weekly spending on energy for physical exercise in all age groups, ultimately promoting hypokinetic diseases. This study is interested in identifying the trend of physical activity behaviour changes during the Covid-19 MCO among university students. This study is also interested in comparing the mean score of physical activity level (inactive, minimum active, sufficient level) among samples. One hundred sixty-five (n=165) healthy samples age 19 to 23 years old currently enrolled as students from the Faculty of Sports Science and Recreation, University Teknologi Mara (FSR) answered the international physical activity questionnaire short form (IPAQ-SF) during the MCO period. Self-Reported Physical Activity Level has shown entirely contradicted from previous studies. 78.2% were at a sufficient level of physical activity; meanwhile, 20% were minimum, and 1.8% were reportedly inactive during the MCO period among FSR students. In addition, this study also found the differences of mean score in physical activity for sufficient level was (1438.78 SE=314.83), minimum active (-1268.65 SE=942.55), and inactive (-2707.43 SE=973.21). This study result showed that although, in restriction conditions in MCO, samples were still able to maintain their physical activity behaviour. The past physical activity practice can explain this phenomenon by these samples required throughout the lesson course, which has become a behaviour among these students.
Keywords: Covid-19, Physical activity
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANTHROPOMETRY AND CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS AMONG UiTM FOOTBALL PLAYERS
Noor Fatihah Ilias, Siti Soraya Mohd Elias, & Muhammad Alif Zulkifli
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is one of the important components among football players. Physiological characteristics of individuals such as anthropometry may influence the level of CRF. Therefore, this study aims to determine the relationship between anthropometry and CRF among UiTM Football Players. A causal- comparative research design, consisting of 24 male participants representing Universiti Teknologi MARA Football Club (UiTM FC) were recruited. Anthropometry was measured via body weight and body height and CRF was measured using a bleep test and the result of the test was calculated to estimate maximum volume of oxygen (VO2 max). Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between anthropometry and CRF. Mean score for anthropometry was 65.17 ± 5.90 for body weight (kg) and 171.18 ± 4.66 for body height (cm). Mean score for CRF was 47.20 ± 4.34 (ml/kg/min). Results show a very weak relationship between body weight and CRF (r = 0.027). Meanwhile, there was a positive and weak relationship between body height and CRF (r = 0.265). In conclusion, evidence from this study showed no association between anthropometry and cardiorespiratory fitness. However, possibly a good anthropometry characteristic possibly gives the advantage of having good cardiorespiratory fitness. Ideal body weight and height is a potential physiological characteristic in determinants of cardiorespiratory fitness. Anthropometric does have a role as part of holistic monitoring of talented players in future development. Viewing the limitations of this study, further studies involving larger sample size are needed to find actual association with this hypothesis.
Keywords: Cardiorespiratory fitness, Body weight, Body height, Football players
POST “APecR” ON SELF – HEALTH PROFILING AMONG AGED 50’S INDIVIDUALS – CASE STUDY
Chee Hian Tan, Jung Young Lee, Raja Mohamed Firhad Raja Azidin, & Walter King Yan Ho
Introduction: APecR was a self – health profiling program with natural physical activity which came to one APecR = 138 Kcl burnt and was registered as one measured unit or patterned (LY2019004970- 28/8/19). Method: Field experimental to justify the effectiveness of APecR as profiling tool. 21 participants voluntarily as they were from previous study with continuity another 3 cycles (3 months’ time, same year). Results: Lifestyle which was categorized as Very Active (> 12,000 steps) = 10.2%, Active (> 10,000 steps) = 43.7%, Moderate (7,500 - 9,999 steps) = 37%, Not Active (50000 – 7499 steps) = 10.0% and without Sedentary lifestyle (< 5,000 steps) after the eventual APecR. Overall mean steps and Kilocalories burnt liked: October - 12,161 steps, and burn with 3.8 APecR (524.4Kcl), November - 13,197 steps, burned with 3.5 APecR (483Kcl) and December with average steps - 12, 005, and burn up to 5.3 APecR (731.4Kcl). Sleeping pattern showed on bed time was prolong from 7 hours 6 second (October) to 7 hours and 16 minutes (December). Weight Lose and Heart Rate: October with weight 81.5Kg, BP reading Excel = 120/80 - 31%, Normal = 130/85- 35%, Normal Systolic = 140/90- 32% and Mild Hyper (2%). In December weight scale slightly dropped to 80.3Kg and blood pressure with Excel (34%), Normal (45%), Normal Systolic = 19% and Mild = 2%. Conclusion: ApecR contributed to practices, delivering fitness towrads health knowledge and post effect of APecR as unit measured and technique proven as an enhancing maintenance domain.
Keywords: Self-Health profiling, “APecR,” Effectiveness, Sleeping pattern.
A COMPARISON STUDY: THE INFLUENCES OF ONLINE LEARNING ON HIGHER INSTITUTION STUDENTS’ LEARNING OF SPORT SKILL SUBJECTS DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC
Fatin Adira Murad, Azlan Ahmad Kamal, & Zarizi Ab. Rahman
The global educational system has been influenced as a result of the presence of Covid-19. Schools were driven to develop online learning programmes due of the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, despite the fact that open online courses have emerged as the primary focus of education reform in the higher education sector, physical education has never been offered any attention by educational reforms which is distance learning. This is despite the fact that distance learning has been actively developed and developed by both the government and schools. New norms demand another approach. Hence, the objectives in this study are to identify if there any differences in students’ well-being, the role of lectures and the effectiveness of sport skill subject learned during online learning among UITM Puncak Alam and MSU Shah Alam students during Covid-19. This study is a quantitative study. A set of questionnaire was distributed to 304 students of UITM Puncak Alam and MSU Shah Alam who took sport skills subject during pandemic covid-19. The findings show there was no significant difference in effectiveness of sport skill subject learned through out online between UITM (M=3.3967, SD=.854) and MSU (M=3.413, SD=.717) students; t (-1.75), p =.862 >0.05. In conclusion, both students and lecturers experience difficulties when participating in online learning. Tolerance and cooperation on the part of both the lecturers and the students are essential to the success of an online learning programme. During the times when classes are held online, it is essential that students and teachers are able to communicate effectively with one another.
Keywords: Covid-19, online learning, sport skill subject.
FOOTBALL COACHING LEADERSHIP STYLE IN MALAYSIA: AN EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS
Azlina Zid, Siti Aishah Wahab, Jamatul Shahidah Shaari, Maizan Mohd Nor, Mohammad Adzly Rajli, Rozita Abd Latif, & Rozita Amiruddin
This study aims at identifying the constructs in the Leadership Scale for Sport (LSS) from the perspective of Malaysian football players. To date, empirical study of factor analysis on coaching leadership style construct in a sports setting is limited. There are 330 professional football players from the Malaysian Super and Premier League who were involved in this study. Leadership Scale for Sport (LSS) by Chelladurai and Saleh (1980) was used, and the exploratory factor analysis was done to obtain information on this current study. The findings showed that from 40 items that measure the five constructs of a coach's style, only 24 items had been formed. However, the five constructs remain. The extraction revealed the five constructs gave a higher eigenvalue than 1, and cumulatively contributed approximately 70.44% overall variance changes for the coach's leadership style variable. Through the rotated sums of squared loadings analysis, the five constructs predicted as much as 77.47% overall change of variance for the variable coaching leadership style are Factor 1=17.36%; Factor 2=16.09%; Factor 3=14.56%; Factor 4=11.88% and Factor 5=10.55%.
Keywords: Coaching leadership style, Exploratory Factor Analysis, Leadership Scale for Sport
A SURVEY ON SPORTS ACTIVITY INVOLVEMENT, MENSTRUAL HISTORY AND EATING DISORDERS IN MALAYSIAN ELITE FEMALE ATHLETES
Afiqah Khairunnisa Yunan, Ooi Foong Kiew, Nur Syamsina Ahmad, Nur Dalila Adilah Abdul Raof , Yeo Wee Kian, Ong Kong Swee, & Rohizat Achop Bin Borhan Janang
This study investigated sports activity involvement, menstrual history, and prevalence of eating disorders among Malaysian elite female athletes. A total of 50 female national and state level athletes with a mean age of 21.16 ± 2.31 years old participated in this study. They were 6 gymnasts, 17 swimmers, 5 cyclists, 7 long distance runners, and 15 silat athletes. The participants were required to answer the sports activity involvement questionnaire, menstrual history questionnaire, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The present study found that 44 (88%) of the total participants had regular menstruation, while 6 (12%) participants had irregular menstruation. The global score of EDE-Q subscales was 1.71 (60 to 65 percentile rank) in all the participants. Comparisons of measured variables between participants with regular menstruation and irregular menstruation showed that age in years at the beginning of training was younger in participants with irregular menstruation (9.83 ± 4.07) than participants with regular menstruation (11.84 ± 3.52). The global score of EDE-Q subscales was higher in participants with irregular menstruation (2.32; 75 to 80 percentile rank) than participants with regular menstruation (1.63; 60 to 65 percentile rank). In conclusion, the results of the present study show that participants with irregular menstruation seem to have higher global score of EDE-Q subscales, i.e., restrain, eating concern, shape concern, and weight concern. Irregular menstruation may be related to the young starting age of the athletes involved in training and the long total training period in years.
Keywords: sports activity involvement, menstrual, eating disorder, elite female athletes
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANTHROPOMETRY ATTRIBUTES AND CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS AMONG MALE UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA FUTSAL ATHLETES
Azhar Yaacob, Siti Zubaidah Nur Marthuan, Shahrulnizar Nurhalim, Mohd Rozilee Wazir Norjali Wazir & Ahmad Termizi Ahmad Kamil
Anthropometry attributes are among the contributing factors needed to ensure the good performance of athletes. Anthropometry attributes can also be used as an indicator for other fitness components. The present study aimed to determine the relationship between anthropometry attributes and cardiovascular fitness among male Universiti Putra Malaysia futsal athletes. A total of 14 male university futsal athletes participated in this study. Anthropometry measurements taken in this study were height, weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and skeletal muscle percentage. For cardiovascular fitness test, several tests were conducted which were the Beep test, Illinois agility test and Running Anaerobic Strength Test (RAST). The correlation test showed that weight, BMI, and body fat percentage have a negative relationship with VO2 max and a positive relationship with the fatigue index. On the other hand, skeletal muscle percentage showed a positive relationship with VO2 max. The results show that anthropometry attributes have a relationship with cardiovascular fitness, especially VO2 max.
Keywords: anthropometry, futsal, cardiovascular fitness, fatigue index
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, SLEEP QUALITY AND DAYTIME SLEEPINESS AMONG IPOH YOUNG ADULTS
Raja Ahmad Mustaqim Raja Ismail, Sharifah Maimunah Syed Mud Puad, Raja Nurul Jannat Raja Hussain, Nurul Ain Abu Kasim, Mardiana Mazaulan, & Muhamad Noor Mohamed
Poor sleep quality due to physical inactivity and excessive use of gadgets is one of the issues faced by young adults. Unfortunately, there is limited data regarding sleep quality characteristics among young adults’ population in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between physical activity, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness among young adults in Ipoh. Total of three hundred thirty-five (N=335) young adults in Ipoh (male= 191, female= 144) age between 18-25 years old were participated in this study. Participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaires-Short Form (IPAQSF), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Results indicated that there was no significant correlation between physical activity and sleep quality (p>0.05) or between physical activity and daytime sleepiness (p>0.05). However, a significant correlation was found between sleep quality and daytime sleepiness (p<0.05, r= -0.278). The findings demonstrated that most of the variables in this study are not interdependent to each other except between sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. Objective measurement should be considered in future studies to provide additional insight into variables information.
Keyword. Physical activity, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, young adults
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND STRESS LEVEL AMONG UNIVERSITY OFFICE WORKERS
Nurfarrahanis Amran, Sharifah Maimunah Syed Mud Puad, Muhammad Wafi A. Rahman, & Mohd Faridz Ahmad
Office workers are a subgroup of employee who perform administrative clerical work in front of computers on regular basis. This group is characterized as the population that engages in less physical activity and tend to have higher level of stress. The main objective of this study is to determine the relationship between physical activity and stress level among office workers in a university. Physical activity level was measured with International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF) (7 items) and Perceived Stress Scale Questionnaire (PSS) (10 items) was the instrumentation used to measure stress level. Total of two hundred thirteen (N=213) office workers were participated in this survey. Most of the respondents report moderate physical activity (58.2 %) and moderate level of stress (70.0%). The findings of this study showed that there was no significant relationship between physical activity and stress level (p > .05). As for conclusion, physical activity and stress level were not associated and interdependent to each other. There are multiple factors that affect physical activity engagement and stress level.
Keyword. Physical activity, Stress, Office worker, IPAQ-SF, PSS
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELF CONFIDENCE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ON TRACK AND FIELD STUDENT-ATHLETES
Vincent Parnabas, Julinamary Parnabas, & Antoinette Mary Parnabas
Psychological performance is a crucial ingredient for athletes’ success in sport. In many research reviews, researchers have found that low level of self-confidence can have deteriorating effect on athletes’ performance. However, to date there has been very limited research to examine self confidence level and psychological performance according to the levels of skills, especially on track and field athletes. The main aim of the study was to compare and correlate the self-confidence and psychological performance level among track and field athletes who represent national, state, district and university level during Sport between Universities event. Data was collected from 77 student-athletes, using Self Confidence and Psychological Performance Inventory (PPI). The results showed that national level athletes obtained the highest score on self-confidence, F (3, 77) = 15.212, and psychological sport performance F (3, 77) = 13.442. Positive correlation (r=0.007) existed between selfconfidence and psychological performance. Based on the current results, it is recommended that sport psychologists, sport counsellors and coaches in Malaysia use the findings to design appropriate training programs to help athletes acquire higher level of self-confidence to enhance athletes’ psychological performance in sports.
Keywords: Self-confidence, Track and field, Psychological performance
THE IMPACT OF THE MOVEMENT CONTROL ORDER PHASES ON THE QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG MALAYSIAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
Maisarah Shari, Raja Nurul Jannat Raja Hussain, Nurul Ain Abu Kasim, Rozella Ab Razak, Nur Atikah Mohamed Kassim, & Siti Jameelah Md Japilus
This study measured the impact of the different phases during movement control order on the quality of life among local Malaysian university students aged >18 years old. An online survey was distributed through a social media platform during the movement control order (MCO; 20 April to 12 May 2020) and conditional movement control order (CMCO; 12 to 20 May 2020). The same participants completed the SF-36 quality of life questionnaire that assessed the overall physical health, mental health, and eight domains which are physical functioning (PF), physical role functioning (RF), bodily pain (BP), general health perceptions (GH), vitality (V), social role functioning (SF), emotional role functioning (EF), and mental health (MH) in both phases. A total of 523 participants (Male = 222, female = 301) completed the survey. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that there was a significant difference in participants’ quality of life between the MCO and CMCO phases. It was revealed in comparison to the CMCO phase, the participants reported lower in both health-related and mental quality of life for PF (Z = -13.79, p <.001), RF (Z = -13.59, p <.001), BP (Z = -11.64, p <.001), GH (Z = - 12.97, p <.001), V (Z = -13.15, p <.001), SF (Z = -15.19, p <.001), EF (Z = -13.71, p <.001), and MH (Z = -8.47, p <.001). In overall university students' quality of life, a better score was shown in physical health quality of life (Z = -13.98, p <.001) and mental health quality of life (Z = -13.21, p <.001) during CMCO compared to MCO phase. Variance experiences through the COVID-19 pandemic faced by university students during both phases of movement control order and conditional movement control order were noted to have an impact on their quality of life.
Keywords: Covid-19, quality of life, students, Malaysia, MCO, CMC
THE EFFECT OF SLEEP QUALITY ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION AMONG IPOH YOUNG ADULTS
Syed Murshid Syed Zubir, Sharifah Maimunah Syed Mud Puad, Nurul Ain Abu Kassim, & Yusandra Md Yusoff
A good sleep quality enhances both physiological and psychological functions. Despite the importance of sleep quality, it is one of the common issues faced by the young population due to modern lifestyle. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of sleep quality on cognitive function (working memory and executive function) among Ipoh young adults. A total of thirty-two (n=32) healthy male Ipoh young adults aged (21.0 ± 1.0) years old participated in this study. The sleep quality was measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PQSI). Meanwhile, for cognitive function the N-Back task was used to measure working memory and the Wisconsin Sorting Card Test (WSCT) was used to measure executive function. The results of this study showed a significant effect of sleep quality on working memory (0- Back p = 0.011, 1-Back p = 0.001, 2 Back p = 0.008) and executive function (Category Achievement p = 0.001, Total Errors p = 0.010). These findings demonstrated sufficient evidence that sleep quality affects cognitive function (p < .05). Hence, sleep quality is associated with better cognitive function in young adults.
Keywords: Sleep Quality, Cognitive Function, Working Memory, Executive Function
‘MUSIC TO MOVE’ – EFFECTS OF LISTENING TO PREFERENTIAL MUSIC ON AEROBIC ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE AND RATE PERCEIVED OF EXERTION RESPONSES
Maisarah Mohd Saleh, Fatin Aqilah Abd Razak, Siti Aishah Abd Rahman, Rozella Ab Razak, Nurul Diyana Sanuddin, Adam Linoby, Nur Atikah Mohamed Kassim, & Ahmad Waqi Wiz
Music has been shown to reduce the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), increase motivation and enhance exercise performance. However, the effects of exercise performance and RPE with recommended tempo songs are less conclusive. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of listening to preferred music on aerobic endurance performance and rate perceived of exertion responses. Thirty physically active males (mean ± SD: 18.27 ± 0.45 years, body mass 21.45 ± 1.40 kg·m-2 ) were recruited for this study. In the experimental study design, participants completed two trials separated by a minimum of 72 hours. In music condition, participants listened to their own preferred music (selection song tempo range was between 121 - 131 bpm). Participants were required to complete a 2.4 km maximal effort run with RPE measured throughout the test. Time to complete 2.4 km aerobic endurance performance and RPE score were significantly lower (PRE: in music condition (11.30 min ± 1.67; 4.83 ± 1.15) compared with in no music condition (11.58 min ± 1.59; 5.43 ± 0.73). In conclusion, the findings of this study indicated that listening to music preference has a significant effect on running performance during 2.4 km aerobic endurance performance. The results from this study could hold important implications for the application of music and enduring aerobic endurance exercise.
Keywords: Music, Aerobic, Endurance performance, RPE, Running
SELF-TALK ON SPORT PERFORMANCE AND SELECTED PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Mohd Saufi Bin Dali, Mohad Anizu Mohd Nor, & Ahmad Fikri Mohd Kassim
Self-talk is a psychological skill training that improves motor performance and sports skills among athletes. Previous research has indicated differences between motivational self-talk and instructional self-talk in sports performance. However, there is a lack of attention paid to the effectiveness of self-talk toward psychological barriers. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to examine past studies on the effect of self-talk on sports performance and to select psychological variables among athletes. Through a systematic review, we analysed the scientific production concerning the sports psychology of self-talk toward athletes. The process review was conducted by the PRISMA protocol and a search performed by using online data sources (Scopus, Web of Science, and Semantic Scholar), as well as, conference proceedings of possibly related papers. The search was limited to articles published within ten years and written in English. A total of 38 studies were analysed. Referring to a total of 38 studies (nine articles focused on the self-talk questionnaire, six articles on motivational self-talk, six articles on instructional studies, and 17 articles focused on both motivational self-talk). Based on this, only 9 studies satisfied the eligibility criteria related to sports performance and psychological effects. As a result, a sample of 9 studies was subjected to systematic quality analysis. The analysis results showed that negative self-talk decreases athletes’ performance. In addition, there is inconsistent evidence on the effect of motivational and instructional self-talk based on specific sports. Based on this review, instructional self-talk is beneficial for fine skills (freethrow basketball and penalty shoot-out), and motivational self-talk is effective for gross skill (running). Thus, it can be concluded that both motivational and instructional self-talk play an important role in enhancing motor performance.
Keywords: Psychological skill training, Motivational self-Talk, Instructional skill training, Sport Performance, Psychological variables
QUIET EYE DURATION AND PERFORMANCE OUTCOME IN PETANQUE
Yallini Selva, Viswanath Sundar, & Amir Arifudeen
Petanque is a competitive skill sport that is popular in Malaysia. Athletes often must perform in a high-pressure situation during a game. The purpose of the research is to understand the influence of the quiet eye duration on the performance outcome across different difficulties amongst the athletes. Ergoneer Dikablis (v3.55) eye-tracking system was used to collect the quiet eye duration of 8 Malaysian petanque athletes in a field setting at the National Sports Council (MSN), Keramat. The athletes were required to shoot the single ball (SB) and double ball (DB) (right ball only) across five different distances from the starting point alternately. The arrangement of a double ball is more difficult compared to a single ball. Three trials were permitted for each distance. Successful trials were recorded when the targeted ball was displaced from its original position in SB (whole ball) and in DB (ball on the right). A previous study found that athletes with higher levels of expertise and successful performance had longer QE duration. The performance outcome and the quiet eye duration were analysed for normality. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis tests were conducted using SPSS statistical software. From the statistical findings, it was found that irrespective of distance, there is a difference in the quiet eye between a single ball and a double ball. As p=0.846, which is greater than p=0.05, there is no significant difference between distance and quiet eye for a single ball. As p=0.865, which is greater than 0.05, there is no significant difference between the distance and quiet eye for the double ball. In conclusion, the duration of the quiet eye is influenced by the difficulty level of the ball arrangement. The performance outcome was not found to be influenced by the quiet eye.
Keywords: Eye- tracking, Quiet eye, Petanque, Malaysian
THE EFFECTS OF RESISTANCE TRAINING ON FASTING BLOOD GLUCOSE AND POWER STRENGTH ON OVERWEIGHT MEN
Muhammad Haikal Zawawi, Mohd Azim Nural Azhan, Ahmad Dzulkarnain Ismail, AlHafiz Abu Bakar, Siti Syahirah Aqilah Shafee, & Stuart Gray
Resistance training has numerous advantages, including increased in muscle strength, endurance, and overall health. The goal of this study was to determine and compare the effect of 6 weeks of voluntary to failure resistance training on fasting blood glucose and power strength in overweight men who took part in one session per week (1TPW) or three sessions per week (3TPW) sessions per week. Fourteen overweight men age: 29±9 years; weight: 80.7±5.9 kg; height: 169.8±5.6 cm; BMI: 27.9±1.2 kg/m2 were selected for this study. Each training session comprising nine exercises performed at 80 percent of one repetition maximum (1RM) to volitional failure. Fasting blood glucose and power strength were measured every week, beginning with the baseline. Paired sample t-test was used to compare the baseline and post-intervention outcome. The result showed a significant difference (p<0.05) in fasting blood glucose and power strength for both groups. However, the 3TPW group had a greater improvement in terms of percentage in reducing fasting blood glucose and increasing power strength on overweight men. Group 1TPW fasting blood glucose decreased by 18% while group 3TPW decreased by 55.4%. Meanwhile, group 1TPW power strength increased by 14.2% compared to group 3TPW increased by 41%. There were significant differences between 1TPW and 3TPW resistance training on fasting blood glucose and power strength. In conclusion, training 1 time per week or 3 times per week are beneficial in reducing fasting blood glucose and increasing power strength. However, training three sessions per week resulted in greater increases in muscle strength and blood glucose compared to one session per week.
Keywords: resistance training, fasting blood glucose, power strength, training frequency
THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CHILDREN EATING BEHAVIOUR AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DURING COVID-19
Nurul Diyana Sanuddin, Maisarah Mohd Saleh, Siti Aishah Abd Rahman, Wan Mohd Norsyam, Nur Azida Durrani Mazahan, & Adam Linoby
The pandemic of Coronavirus (COVID-19) has resulted in the imposition of home confinement and the indefinite extension of school closures. Several countries, including Malaysia, have enacted ‘lockdowns,' which prohibit people from engaging in outside activities. During this period, it leads to severe repercussions on individuals’ eating and lifestyle behaviour. These behaviours increased the risk susceptibility to weight gain, particularly if the quantity of daily physical activity was reduced as a result of the lockdowns period. There is a need to draw attention to the pandemic's long-term impact on children's eating behaviour and physical activity. Clearly, social isolation and stay-at-home orders issued in cities around the world restrict opportunities for children to engage in physical activity. In addition, COVID-19 may aggravate the risk of a shift towards an obesity epidemic among children. It is critical to tackle children’s eating and lifestyle behaviours during COVID-19 pandemic as these are intrinsically linked to the children's cognitive development, academic performance, and disease susceptibility. The purpose of the activity was to examine the association between the scores of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ), Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ-C) and Body Mass Index (BMI) among selected school children in Pahang during COVID-19. A total of 100 schoolchildren (37 males and 63 females) parents with children aged between 9-12 years completed an online survey which included a set of questionnaires to measure their own level of physical activity (PAQ-C) as well as that of their children’s eating style (CEBQ) during the lockdown period. During COVID-19, schoolchildren are not engaged in physical activity, it showed that only 32 children active compared to 68 children were inactive on doing physical activity per week. Predominantly, children underweight was 39, Normal BMI was 38 children, overweight was 21 children and obesity children was 2, from this descriptive data it showed that enjoyment of food and food responsiveness are related in this study. The Pearson Analysis indicated that there were significantly associated with BMI and CEBQ (P = 0·006 to < 0·001). The physical activity scales revealed positively related to BMI (P = 0·048 to < 0·001). In conclusion, the current findings underlined the growing need for strategies in preserving children’s health and development.
Keywords: Covid19, CEBQ, Physical activity, School children, Eating behaviour
MANAGEMENT STRATEGY OF LARGE CLASS OF PE IN PRIMARY SCHOOL
Mohamad Nizam Bin Mohamed Shapie, Mohamad Rahizam Bin Abdul Rahim, & Wenyao Chen
Classroom management of Large Physical Education (PE) classes is a problem that frontline teachers are particularly concerned about. The purpose is to improve the teaching quality. This study cited 24 relevant literature. I spent 4 years teaching in 2 of the 8 schools I visited on field trips. Ten experts were sequentially interviewed to learn more about how physical education is emerging in large classes. The research results show: 1) The teacher's lax management in the classroom results in poor learning effects and weak teacher authority. 2) Teachers' weak emotional management abilities can't easily lead to students to mobilise their enthusiasm for learning. 3) Long-term marginalisation can easily cause teachers to slack off and no longer pursue personal progress. In order to better manage students on the frontline teachers, the following countermeasures are proposed: First, the card system, team leader system, and reflection system are used in classroom management. Teachers can control the quality and safety well, solve the problem of large class teaching. Second, the cultivation of students' safety awareness not only emphasises theory but also practice, allowing students to participate in management. Third, create a positive classroom environment and serve all students in the classroom. Fourth, help students understand individual differences, formulate personal training plans, and promote healthy physical and mental development.
Keywords: teaching management, large class, primary school physical education, teaching quality, physical and mental health
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF PLAYING SURFACE ON THE PLAYING STYLE OF THE TOP-FIVE RANKED TENNIS PLAYERS IN THE WORLD
Hazim Asyraf Zainor, Muhamad Noor Mohamed, Mardiana Mazaulan, Nurul Ain Abu Kassim, Raja Nurul Jannat Raja Hussein, & Sharifah Maimunah Syed Mud Puad
Mastering diverse tennis court surfaces demands distinct skills and strategies, enhancing adaptability for players to excel. Adapting to these differences not only shapes a well-rounded player but also offers a competitive edge by aligning tactics with conditions, opponents, and situations. Through purposive sampling, the study selected the top five global tennis players based on their 2022 ATP Tour Rankings. Analyzing match videos using NacSport Basic+ across clay (N=14), grass (N=14), and hard courts (N=10), the study scrutinized shot selection. Indicators included total serves, aces, success rates in serves, forehand, backhand, and volley shots, unforced errors for each type, and double faults. On hard courts, players achieved a mean of 75.50 ± 15.967 successful serves from 123.10 ± 28.192 attempts. Forehand shots averaged 20.40 ± 9.252 winners and 15.00 ± 6.018 unforced errors. Volleys saw 5.80 ± 1.989 winners and only 1.40 ± 1.075 unforced errors, while backhand shots had more unforced errors (17.30 ± 7.134) than winners (10.30 ± 4.572). Transitioning to grass, the total serves won averaged 74.86 ± 18.068 out of 122.10 ± 30.105 attempts. Forehand shots-maintained prominence with 20.93 ± 7.290 winners and 20.07 ± 7.405 unforced errors. Volleys averaged 6.64 ± 3.608 for winners and 2.86 ± 1.099 unforced errors, with backhand shots showing more unforced errors (19.79 ± 5.508) than winners (12.00 ± 5.189). On clay, players achieved 71.93 ± 18.568 successful serves from 144.27 ± 43.645 attempts. Forehand shots averaged 20.40 ± 6.874 winners and 18.13 ± 7.745 unforced errors. Volleys saw 6.00 ± 2.449 winners and 2.07 ± 1.163 unforced errors, with backhand shots exhibiting more unforced errors (17.27 ± 5.898) than winners (10.53 ± 4.291). In essence, top players strategically adapt their style to each court’s demands, leveraging strengths to excel. This adaptability underscores their exceptional skill and versatility, solidifying their positions as elite tennis players across diverse conditions.
Keywords: Tennis, Court, Strategies, Playing Style, Performance Indicators
IMPACT OF SLACKLINE TRAINING & FIFA 11+ EXERCISE PROGRAM IN PREVENTING LOWER LIMB SOFT TISSUE INJURIES AMONG SEMI-PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL PLAYERS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY
Shibin Rag Panikare, Aparna Sudhan Mohana, & Nizar Abdul Majeed Kutty
Elite semi-professional football showed a high incidence of soft tissue injury. The positive impact of slackline training on static and dynamic balance could indicate the usefulness of slackline training in injury prevention. The study aimed to compare the impact of slackline training and the FIFA 11+ exercise program on the Y-balance test to prevent soft tissue injuries in the lower limb among semi-professional football players. 30 subjects were recruited and randomly divided into 2 groups [Group A & Group B]. The Y-balance test score was assessed for all participants. Group A followed a supervised slackline training program, and Group B was involved in the FIFA 11+ exercise program. For both groups, the frequency of training was 3 days per week for eight weeks. On statistical analysis, the post-test values showed that the pvalue of YBT AT, YBT PL, YBT PM scores between the 2 groups are < 0.05, < 0.01, and < 0.001 respectively. Though both groups showed improvement in Y-balance test scores, Group A showed significant improvement over Group B subjects. In conclusion, slackline training is a better method to improve dynamic balance and thereby prevent injuries than the FIFA 11+ exercise program.
Keywords: slackline training, FIFA 11+ exercise program, balance test, soft tissue injury, semi-professional football player