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Malaysian Journal of Sport Science and Recreation

Volume 18(1) 2022

DEVELOPMENT OF ADVENTURE-BASED MENTAL TOUGHNESS INVENTORY (ABMTI): NEED SURVEY ANALYSIS AMONG MALAYSIAN ACTIVE OUTDOOR PRACTITIONERS.
Mohd Shariman Shafie, Md. Amin Md. Taff, Hisyam Che Mat, Nik Jazwiri Johanis, Omar Firdaus, Mohd Said, Mustakim Hashim, Mohd Noorazlan Ab Aziz, & Muhammad Wafi A. Rahman

Abstract

A new landscape of adventure-based program demonstrated it linked to positive psychological aspects outcomes, including mental toughness. These benefits go beyond traditional character-building concepts of adventure-based programs. In Malaysia, there are numerous adventure-based programs conducted by many levels of organizations with aims to improve participants’ mental toughness. Unfortunately, there are very limited studies conducted on how to design a specific instrument of the adventure-based mental toughness program. The conceptual issues identified as main interest in this regard is identify the need to develop adventure-based mental toughness inventory among Malaysian outdoor practitioners. The study based on the Develop and Design Research (DDR; Saedah, Muhammad & Rozaini, 2020). IBM Statistic (SPSS) utilized as the main statistical analysis software. A total of 85 respondents (N=85) among active outdoor practitioners have purposively been selected. Based on the analyses, overall, 93% of agrees was achieved for all statements in the survey (with IQR= .0 -1.99). These findings provided a platform from which to foster coherent and systematic scholarly work on adventure-based program and mental toughness development.


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FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SPORTING ATTITUDE AMONG EXCELLENT STUDENTS
Siti Nazariah Abdul Razak, Tajul Arifin Muhamad, & Wan Rezawana Wan Daud

Abstract

Physical sporting activities is beneficial for your health. It has to be continuously and constantly performed route in creating positive and healthy lifestyle as it involves self-discipline. It needs a special interest and a positive mindset to attract students to take up sporting activities. The objective of this study is to assess the students’ interest in sports based on several factors among the excellent students. The samples for this study are a group of students (N = 420) comprises of male (n = 210) and female (n = 210) with the age of 16 years old, selected based on simple random sampling. Questionnaire forms were used as a method for data collection. Descriptive and inferential analysis was used to look at the factors influencing students’ sporting attitudes based on demographic data. The result shows that there are four factors highly influencing sporting attitudes. However, only the aspect of value that has significance different from gender p <0.05, where male students are higher than female. Nevertheless, the most significant factor is gender, p<0.05, where male students found to be higher than female. This value aspect is a preliminary consideration of the advantages or disadvantages of sports. Sporting assessment also depends on the effectiveness of teaching by educators who shape the behavior of students to pick up sports. Hsiao (2009) emphasizes the attitude of teachers or lecturers who care about students, know what is being taught, easy to discuss and make teachers and lecturers happy to be with them.


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ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ENJOYMENT FACTOR AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL AMONG TERTIARY EDUCATION STUDENTS
Muhamad Noor Mohamed , Nur Qistina Abrizah Mohd Sani , Muhammad Wafi A Rahman ,Muhamad Safiq Saiful Annur, Mardiana Mazaulan , Mohd Aizzat Razak & Noor Azila Azreen Md Radzi

Abstract

Enjoyment plays an important key role in the involvement of physical activity. The purpose of the present was to determine the relationship between enjoyment factors and physical activity level among students in UiTM Alor Gajah. 437 respondents (N=437) were voluntarily involved. Physical Activity Enjoyment Scales (PACES) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF) used to quantify enjoyment and physical activity level. Descriptive analysis (Mean ± Standard Deviation) used to describe the demographic value. 


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THE MOTIVES MALAYSIANS VOLUNTEERS ASSIGN FOR SERVING AS VOLUNTEERING FOR SUKMA GAMES
Rozita Abdul Latif, Nor Fadzilina Nawi, Azlina Zid, Noridah Abu Bakar, & Mohammad Adzly Rajli

Abstract

Volunteering activities are positive experiences that attract volunteers to spend their free time to benefit society while increasing the volunteers’ job satisfaction and self-esteem (Chang et al., 2012). However, research on the motives of sport volunteers and the impact of volunteerism on the self-esteem of sport volunteers in Malaysia is scarce, and the present study was aimed at contributing to the filling of this knowledge gap. The purpose of this study is to determine the motives Malaysian volunteers assign for serving as volunteering for SUKMA Games. A total of 376 Malaysian volunteers for the SUKMA Games in Perak in 2018 participated in the study. A Volunteer Functions Inventory (VFI) and Rosenberg’s SelfEsteem Scale (RSES) were administered to 376 Malaysian SUKMA Games volunteers. Data were collected, collated, analysed and interpreted to ascertain the main findings of the SUKMA Games volunteers’ motives and their influence on their self-esteem levels. This study showed that Malaysian volunteers had several motives for volunteering with the highest motive identified as understanding. There was also a significant positive relationship between motive for volunteering and self-esteem level among SUKMA Games volunteers. Overall, all Malaysians volunteered because they had a high motive for volunteering. Volunteering also improved the self-esteem levels of Malaysian sport volunteers.


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STRATEGIC SPORTS PLANNING IN MALAYSIA AND QATAR
Siti Nazariah Abdul Razak, & Tajul Arifin Muhamad

Abstract

In the ‘11th Malaysia Plan 2016–2020’ targets sports and recreation for development fall under the Ministry of Youth and Sports. Each division and agency, as well as the Olympic Council has its own strategic plan. Somewhat differently, Qatar launched a sports plan, its Sports Sector Strategy 2011– 2016 (2011), under the ‘Qatar National Vision 2030’. Both countries recently accounted for elite sporting performances at the 18th Asian Games in Jakarta-Palembang (2018). Malaysia won 7 gold medals and placed 14th overall. Qatar took 6 gold medals and 15th place. This article compares Malaysia and Qatar sports programs regarding vision, mission, strategies, outcomes and problems. A literature review and document analysis are herein offered with the hope of aiding Malaysia’s Ministry of Youth and Sports to develop proactive strategies with excellent outcomes.


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EUROPEAN FOOTBALL AND THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC – ITS IMPACT ON COMPETITIONS, CLUBS AND PLAYER CONTRACTS
Chris Davies, & Neil Dunbar

Abstract

European football, like all major sport around the world, was heavily impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. All national leagues in Europe had to suspend their 2019-20 seasons, though most were eventually able to complete them by extending the seasons beyond their usual finishing dates. However, these resumed fixtures had to be played in empty stadiums, as were most matches in the 2020-21 seasons. This article considers how these problems were dealt with by investigating the three key areas of competitions, the clubs and player contracts. UEFA, and the governing bodies of the various national leagues, demonstrated flexibility and adaptability in running the competitions which was crucial to their successful completion. The clubs suffered from loss of revenue due to reduced broadcasting rights and gate receipts but did obtain some financial assistance from a variety of sources. Player contracts had to be dealt with on a more individual basis depending on the law applicable to them and the negotiations between the individual clubs and their players, although there were national agreements in some countries. In the circumstances, European football appears to have survived the COVID-19 pandemic reasonably well, although the recent advent of the Omnicron variant indicates that the problems may not be over yet.


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MOTIVES FOR TAKING PART IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITES BASED ON GENDER
Vincent A. Parnabas, Nagoor Meera Abdullah, Mohamad Nizam Mohamed Shapie, & Mohamad Rahizam Abdul Rahim

Abstract

There are many reasons why individuals participate in sports or physical activities. There are two main types of motives for engaging in physical activities, which is intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Previous research found that the six important motives, given by student-athletes for sport participation, were achievement, body shape, physical fitness, teamwork, learning new skills and challenges. However, research comparing the difference on motives for taking part in physical activities, especially on gender is limited. The aim of this study is to find the motives of taking part in physical activities among male and female student-athletes. A hundred student-athletes Purpose of Sport Questionnaire. Seven factors were derived from the questionnaire, Mastery or Cooperation, Physically Active lifestyle, Good Citizen, Competitiveness, High Status Career, Enhance Self-Esteem and Social Status or Getting Ahead. The sample was chosen from a Malaysian university. The result showed that there isn’t any significance differences on the motives of taking part in physical activity between genders. Since the result showed that the main motive for both gender were physically active lifestyle, it is better to plan the facilities of sport to fulfill this motive. In addition, identifying the range of motives given by the result of this study, will help sports psychologists to provide adequate and variety of sports programmers to maintain interest among participants. 


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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ARM MUSCLE STRENGTH, MUSCLE ENDURANCE, BALANCE AND DRAW FORCE LENGTH ON ARCHERY PERFORMANCE
Maisarah Binti Mohd Saleh, Adam Linoby, Fatin Aqilah Binti Abdul Razak, Nurul Ain Binti Abu Kasim, & Nur Atikah Binti Mohamed Kassim

Abstract

Archery is a type of sport which participants release the arrow after aiming the target. The shot of an arrow must be accurate to the highest score on the target face. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the most the most contributing variable in archery performance. Methodology: A total of 31 females and males, aged between 13 – 18 years old from Pusat Latihan Negeri Unit Sukan Prestasi Tinggi, Majlis Sukan Negeri, Negeri Sembilan participated in this study. They were involved in different level of achievement in archery competition, ranging from beginner until expert archers. They were also free from any injuries. The participants engaged in three tests, which were arm muscle strength test, push-up test, stork balance stand test. Result: The Pearson correlation analysis showed there was significant relationship among variable measured. In addition, regression analysis showed the arm muscle strength and muscle endurance were the most contributed variable in archery performance. Findings and discussion: These elements can be indicators of an archer’s skill level and can be applied as important parameter to select potential archers and also assessment of archer’s performance. The time taken to develop the archer to become an expert archer can be shortening due to focusing on important variables


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EFFECTS OF PROBIOTICS CONSUMPTION AND RESISTANCE EXERCISE ON BONE METABOLISM MARKERS IN PHYSICALLY INACTIVE YOUNG MALES
Nur Syazwani Ibrahim, Ayu Suzailiana Muhamad, Chee Keong Chen, & Foong Kiew Ooi

Abstract

This study aims to investigate the effects of probiotics supplementation and resistance exercise on bone metabolism markers and parathyroid hormones in physically inactive young men. Fourty-one healthy participants completed the study. They were randomized into sedentary placebo control (C: n=10), probiotics (P: n=10), resistance exercise with placebo (E: n=12), and probiotics consumption with resistance exercise (PE: n=9) groups. Participants in the P and PE consumed multi-strain probiotics containing 3x1010 CFU of L. acidophilus BCMC® 12130, L. casei BCMC® 12313, L. lactis BCMC® 12451, B. bifidum BCMC® 02290, B. infantis BCMC® 02129 and B. longum BCMC® 02120 twice daily for 12 weeks. Participants in the E and PbE performed circuit training comprised of 10 resistance exercises 3 times/week. Body height and weight, blood pressure, resting heart rate and blood samples were collected at pre and post-tests. Blood samples were analysed for the concentration of bone formation markers [alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OC)], bone resorption marker [cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (1CTP)] and parathyroid hormones (PTH). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in all measured parameters between groups and within each group (p>0.05). Nevertheless, ALP and OC concentration exhibited increasing trends in PE group. There was a decreasing trend in PTH concentration in P and PE groups. As a conclusion, probiotics consumption with resistance exercise resulted in increased trends of bone formation markers and a small reduction in the bone resorption marker implying that this combination may elicit beneficial effects in improving bone formation in young physically inactive males.


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PATH ANALYTIC APPROACH TOWARDS DEMYSTIFYING THE KEY TRIGGERS BEHIND LIKING DIFFERENT CRICKET FORMATS – A KOLKATA BASED STUDY
Subhasis Ray, & Soma Roychowdhury

Abstract

Cricket has multiple international formats. This study aims to find out if gender and age have any influences on liking any formats. It delves deep into the outcome quality of a cricket match to build a construct for understanding fans’ psyche behind fondness for any formats. The same construct is used to model overall liking for each format. The study uses Chi-square test for independence to investigate the influence of gender and age group on overall liking of a format. It uses Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to establish the dimensional construct and applies Structural Equation Model (SEM) to model overall liking based on the construct. The study finds no link between gender and liking of a format even though age group appears to influence. It establishes the construct REST comprising of Result, Excitement, Skill, Time and Money to measure overall liking for a format. Result and Skill are found to be insignificant for predicting the liking of Tests and T20 respectively whereas ODI appears to be more balanced. The findings give a clear indication to the regulators that test matches need to be made more unpredictable and result-oriented and T20 matches less restricted and more skilful. The regulators need to strategize making the younger generation interested in test and the older generation in T20. REST can be treated as a pioneering construct that can explain fan’s expectation from a game of cricket leading to liking a format.


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Malaysian Journal of Sport Science and Recreation

Volume 18.(2) 2022

Table Of Content
ISSN 1823-3198 e -ISSN 2735-1238

Abstract

Volume 18 no 2


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ELUCIDATION OF COACHING EFFECTIVENESS AND COACH’S BEHAVIOR ON ATHLETE’S SELF - PERCEPTION
Ahmad Fikri Mohd Kassim Syed Shahbudin Syed Omar Nur Amirah Zaker Nur Fatehah Nasir

Abstract

This research aimed to investigate whether: a) sport experience, coach/athlete sex and sex mismatch predicted athletes’ perceptions of their coach’s effectiveness on four dimensions of effectiveness, b) athletes’ perceptions of coaching effectiveness differed between team and individual sports, and c) the four dimensions of coaching effectiveness were predicted by athletes’ perceptions of conceptually related coach behaviors. Male (n=150) and female (n=147) athletes from team and individual sports completed questionnaires assessing athletes’ perceptions of their coach’s effectiveness and behavior. Results revealed, a) sex predicted three dimensions of coaching effectiveness, such that perceptions of motivation, technique and character-building effectiveness were higher in females than males, b) perceptions of motivation, technique and character-building effectiveness were higher in individual-sport athletes than team-sport athletes, and c) all four dimensions of coaching effectiveness were predicted by conceptually related coach behaviors. This study identified a wide range of antecedents of coaching effectiveness, partially supports past research and provides support for the contention that athletes’ perceptions of coaching effectiveness are based upon observations of coach behaviour. 

 

Keywords: Coaching effectiveness, coach’s behavior, individual and team sport, sport experience. 

 

 


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ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN SPEED, POWER AND ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE IN SUPER LEAGUE SOCCER PLAYERS
Nur Fatihah Saidi Chee Hian Tan Raja Mohammed Firhad Raja Azidin Hashbullah Ismail Geik Yong Ang

Abstract

The physical characteristics favourable for soccer players includes high level of speed, explosive jumping power, and aerobic fitness which highlights the importance of assessing these characteristics for strength and conditioning training program development. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between speed, power and endurance performance of Malaysia Super League soccer players. Twenty-four male soccer players (age = 24.50 ± 3.11 years, height = 176.12 ± 8.11 cm, body mass = 70.86 ± 9.07 kg) were recruited in this study and all the players were tested for explosive lower body power (vertical jump, VJ), speed (30meter sprint), and endurance (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2, YYIEL2). A statistically significant correlation was found between 30-meter sprint time and distance covered in YYIEL2, but contrary to previous findings reported in the literature, sprint time and VJ height were not correlated. Therefore, VJ training may not necessarily improve speed and an improvement in VJ performance may not reflect an improvement in speed. In addition, no significant correlation was found between VJ height and the distance covered in YYIEL2. Given the intermittent nature of the game, the negative moderate correlation between sprint time and distance covered in YYIEL2 (r = -0.43, p <0.05) indicated that specific aerobic and anaerobic performance could be enhanced simultaneously through the appropriate training programme. 

 

Keywords: football, elite, anaerobic power, aerobic capacity 

 

 


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CORRELATION OF TOTAL GENOTYPE SCORES AND AEROBIC CAPACITY AMONG FIELD HOCKEY PLAYERS
Wan Atiyyah Ab Wahab Sarina Md Yusof Suhana Aiman Elin Elisa Khairul Nur Amirah Asyiqin Zaihuri

Abstract

A balanced aerobic and anaerobic capacity is an important determinant of performance among field hockey players during the competition. Training and heritable talent play important roles in determining the performance of the athletes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the influence of sport-related genetic variants on aerobic capacity and repeated sprint ability performance among field hockey players. A total of 45 participants (age = 16.42 ± 0.50 years old, height = 1.67 ± 0.06 m) were selected based on the inclusion criteria of this study. Participants were divided into three groups based on training intensity for eight weeks (high intensity, moderate intensity, and control). Three genetic variants associated with endurance and power (ACE rs1799752, ACTN3 rs1815739, and PPARA rs4253778) were used to calculate the total genotype score (TGS). Pearson’s correlation was used to analyse the correlations between the performance and TGS. There was a significant correlation between the aerobic capacity with endurance TGS (r=0.55, p=0.03) and power TGS (r=-0.55, p=0.03) following the moderate intensity group. It is concluded that the higher the endurance TGS, the better the aerobic capacity in the moderate intensity endurance exercise. Therefore, the shortterm performance of the athletes was significantly influenced by the genotypes and training intensity. 

 

Keywords: Total genotype Score, aerobic capacity, field hockey players 


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AGILITY, AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC CAPACITIES AND MUSCULAR PERFORMANCE OF MALAY MALE STATE LEVEL RUGBY AND HOCKEY PLAYERS
Nor Syafinas Jamhari Chee Keong Chen Foong Kiew Ooi

Abstract

Fitness for sports has a multifaceted characteristic which includes physiologically independent components such as aerobic and anaerobic capacities, muscular strength, power, speed and agility. The present study investigated the agility, aerobic and anaerobic capacities and muscular performance of Malay male state level rugby and hockey players and sedentary individuals as control. Thirty Malay male participants (Age: 16.1 ± 0.9 years old) were recruited in this study. The participants were divided into three groups: sedentary control, rugby and hockey, with 10 participants per group. All the participants were required to perform the following physical fitness assessments: agility via Illinois agility test, aerobic capacity via 20 m shuttle run, anaerobic capacity via Wingate test, and muscular power via standing long jump and muscular strength measurement via hand grip and back and leg strength tests. The main findings of this study were: 1) rugby group showed significantly higher leg power and aerobic capacity compared to the hockey group, 2) rugby group have significantly higher agility, muscular strength and power, aerobic and anaerobic capacities compared to the sedentary control group, 3) hockey group have significantly higher agility, muscular power, aerobic and anaerobic capacities compared to the sedentary group. We conclude that physical training in rugby and hockey at state level in Kelantan elicited increased physical fitness components among the players compared to their sedentary counter-parts. 

 

Keywords: Agility, Aerobic Capacity, Anaerobic Capacity, Muscular Strength, Muscular Power  

 


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THE DISPARITY OF PERFORMANCE INDICATORS BETWEEN WINNING AND LOSING FIBA WOMEN'S BASKETBALL WORLD CUP 2018 TEAMS
Muhamad Noor bin Mohamed Ainul Ashykeen binti Zainal Mardiana binti Mazaulan

Abstract

International Basketball Federation (FIBA) is an association that control basketball sports worldwide. One of the events that have been created by FIBA since 1953 was the FIBA Women’s Basketball World Cup and the World Cup of 2018 was chosen as the sample. The main objective of this study was to identify and compare the game plan used by both winning and losing teams in FIBA Women’s Basketball World Cup 2018. This study conducted to analyse the tactical evaluation in attacking and defending used based on the chosen performance indicators. There were 18 performance indicators involved (successful free throw, unsuccessful free throw, successful passing, unsuccessful passing, successful block, unsuccessful block, defensive rebound, offensive rebound, foul, rebound, assist, crossover, steal, inside pass, turnover, shooting 3-points and shooting 2-points). All videos (N=40) have been observed used Longomatch software to quantify the data. The reliability and validity testing outcome (R=>0.8 and the total error (%) = <10%) render the instrument reliable and the data valid. Independent T-test used to test the hypothesis and the outcome showed that seven indicators had significant differences between winning and losing. The significant indicators were successful free throw, t (76.53) = 3.58, p = 0.001, defensive rebound, t (78) = 5.78, p = 0.001, foul, t (78) = -2.63, p = 0.01, rebound, t (78) = 4.63, p = 0.001, assist, t (78) = 5.51, p = 0.001, fast break, t (78) = 3.13, p = 0.002, and finally shooting 2-points, t (78) = 5.06, p = 0.001. Other performance indicators noted to have no significant difference between both groups (p > 0.05). This study’s findings provide evidence on selected performance indicators that verify an effective strategy to gain points in match games. 

 

Keywords: performance indicators, women basketball 

 

 


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INFLUENCE OF CULTURAL PRACTISES ON THE HEALTH OF YORUBA PEOPLE LIVING IN ILORIN SOUTH LGA, KWARA STATE
Oniyangi, Shuaib Olanrewaju Jamiu Abdulqudus Tosin

Abstract

This study examined the Influence of Cultural Practices on Yoruba People living in Ilorin South LGA, Kwara State. Relevant literature was reviewed and the areas reviewed include; concept of breast ironing, puerperal bath and nutritional taboos and health effects related to the prevalence of cultural practices were reviewed and appraised. A descriptive research design survey method was used for the study. The population of the study consisted of all Yoruba people living in Kwara State. A multi stage sampling techniques was used for this study. The sample consists of two hundred respondents. A researcher designed questionnaire was used as research instrument for data collection, which was validated by three experts in the Department of Health Promotion and Environmental Health Education Department, University of Ilorin and a reliability co-efficient of 0.75r was obtained through test re-test method using Pearson Product Movement Correlation (PPMC).  The instrument was administered by the researcher. The three postulated hypotheses were tested using frequency count, percentage and the inferential statistic of chi square at 0.05 alpha level. Findings from the study revealed that: 1. Breast ironing had negative influence on the health of Yoruba people because the calc. X2 value of 532.24 ˃ table X2 value of 16.92 at the degree of freedom df 9 at 0.05 level of significance; 2. Puerperal bath had negative influence on the health of Yoruba people because the calc. X2 value of 259.16 ˃ table X2 value of 16.92 at the degree of freedom df 9 at 0.05 level of significance; 3.Nutritional taboos  had negative influence on the health of Yoruba people because the calc. X2 value of 780.24 ˃ table X2 value of 16.92 at the degree of freedom df 9 at 0.05 level of significance; Based on the findings and conclusion of the study, the following recommendations were made; Breast ironing should be abolished as a cultural practice and young girls should be educated on sexual values to avoid premarital sex. Slightly cooler water should be used to bath new mothers and dipping of hand in the water to test it before being used by new mothers. Essential food nutrients should not be restricted for invalid, pregnant and lactating mothers as well as infants. Also equally nutritious food substances should be used to supplement forbidden ones; Individuals and families should put an end to the practice of negative socio-cultural practices and engage healthy lifestyles. 

 

Keyword: Cultural practices, Breast ironing, premarital sex, Essential food, Healthy lifestyle.  

 


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“CYCLIC” ON SELF - HEALTH PROFILING DURING COVID 19 – CASE STUDY
Tan Chee Hian, Lee Jung Young, Raja Mohammed Firhad Raja Azidin, Walter King Yan Ho, & Tetsu Moriguchi

Abstract

Introduction: Self – health profiling approach during MCO, CMCO and RMCO with cycling liked actions and physical activities on training equipment to name as “Cyclic” method in order to figured out psychomotor and psychological aspects of one’s lifestyle.  Method – Indoor self- record and descriptive study with the justification outcomes of “Cyclic” as profiling tool in order to be widely used in the critical COVID lifestyle. Participants: 10 participants with aged 50’s voluntarily involved with all records and results were justify by external 2 observers as far as reliability and validity results were concerned from March to October, 2020 (8 months) duration. Food intake recorded, Distance, Blood pressure, Pulse rate and Time recorded as well steps performed daily with self - record participants’ log books by external observers. Results: Sleeping pattern showed on bed time was better from 7 hours 16 second (March 2020) to 7 hours and 36 minutes (October 2020). Weight Lose from March with 81.5Kg to 79Kg (Oct), BP reading Excel = 120/80 – 57.01%, Normal = 130/85- 33.82%, Normal Systolic = 140/90- 9.08% and mild hyper (1.2%). An hourly “Cyclic” every time performed came to average of 42,000 steps per session with 80.6% average performed by all participants, this was considered 83% in 8 months’ time recorded. The enjoyment and relaxing feelings of respondents and sweating among all respondents with training heart rate 70% of HR Max. Significance: Findings were contributed to practices, profiling knowledge method and maintenance of one’s self- health to keep fit for single daily functional throughout 8 months. Implication: the 50’s aged adults’ self - health profiling considered “Cyclic” as another approach of physical activities in enhancing psychological and psychomotor domains.  

 

Keywords: Self-Health profiling, “Cyclic”, Effectiveness, Sleeping pattern, Training heart rate 

 

 


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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OBESITY RISK KNOWLEDGE AND BODY MASS INDEX AMONG SPORTS SCIENCE AND RECREATION STUDENTS BASED ON GENDER
Farhanah Abdul Rahim, Alya Natasha Rozzaini, Nur Asmidar A. Halim, & Noor Fatihah Ilias

Abstract

Knowledge is a powerful indicator for prevention of obesity where knowledge related to the risk of obesity may influence the rate of obesity, especially among students. Maybe students with high knowledge on the risk of obesity have a normal body fatness and vice versa. However, the association between knowledge and obesity rate among students is inconclusive. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between knowledge on risk of obesity and body mass index (BMI) among Sports Science and Recreation (FSR) students based on gender. The correlational study involved n =257 were male and n=179 were female students from FSR. The Obesity Risk Knowledge-10 Scale (ORK-10) Questionnaire was used to measure the level of knowledge on risk of obesity and BMI was used as an indicator for obesity rate. Results showed male students mean score for knowledge was 4.78 ± 1.58 and 4.71 ± 1.68 for female students. Mean BMI for each gender was 23.64 ± 4.90 for male and 21.89 ± 3.4 for female students.  There were negative and weak correlation between knowledge and obesity rate for male students r=-0.174, p <.005 and positive and very weak correlation among female students r=0.076, p >.005. These results showed both male and female students ware having poor knowledge on risk of obesity, but they have a normal body fatness. Hence, knowledge on risk of obesity doesn’t influence the obesity rate among FSR students. Probably, FSR students actively engage in physical activity since it is part of academic program that demanding students to be physically active that indirectly maintain their BMI score. Conceivably, knowledge together with practice possibly will help for upkeep of normal body fatness.  

 keywords: obesity risks knowledge, BMI, fatness, indicators. 

 

 


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EFFECT OF FICUS DELTOIDEA ON RAT’S SWIMMING PERFORMANCE AND ITS MUSCLE ANABOLIC PROPERTIES
Azhar Yaacob, Mohamad Aris Mohd Moklas, Zulkhairi Amom, Siti Zubaidah Nur Marthuan, & Mohamad Taufik Hidayat Baharuldin

Abstract

Ficus deltoidea (FD) is herbal plant that been used traditionally in Malaysia to treat various illness such as cold, regain energy in post-partum women and improve libido. Scientific studies also proved that FD possess medicinal properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, anti-diabetic and wound healing properties. Currently, FD has been claimed to possess energy booster effect and a commercialized energy drink has been formulated using FD, but there was no scientific study on the effect of FD on physical performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of FD aqueous extract on swimming time, muscle fiber size and blood testosterone level. Male Wistar rats (n=24) were used in this in vivo model of study. They were divided equally into 4 groups according to FD treatment dosage (0, 50, 200 and 800 mg/kg). FD treatments were given via oral gavage for 6 weeks. Physical fitness of rats treated with FD were evaluated using weight-loaded force swimming test (WLFST) while muscle fiber cross section area was measured to determine muscle fiber size. Data from WLFST suggested that FD supplementation did not improve swimming time in treated rats. FD was found to effectively induce muscle hypertrophy by increasing muscle fiber cross section area. In this study, FD was shown to exhibit ergogenic effect on rats by increasing lean muscle mass, without affecting testosterone level and swimming time.  

 

Keywords: ficus deltoidea, Mas Cotek, muscle hypertrophy, physical performance 


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LAB-CONTROLLED SOCCER: A REVIEW OF SOCCER MATCH-PLAY SIMULATIONS
Mohammad Hamdan, & Raja Mohammed Firhad Raja Azidin

Abstract

Soccer is the most popular sport that has attracted not only participants and spectators, but also numerous researchers into studying a myriad of disciplines relating to the sport. The demands of the sport have been observed, studied, and replicated to be reproduced in a more controlled, laboratory setting in forms of various exercise protocols designed to mimic actual soccer match-play. However, the development and selection of a simulation has varied across studies. This review aims to compile and align various protocols in simulating soccer matchplay to identify and evaluate the feasibility of incorporating different simulations into various studies in the sport. Overground and treadmill simulations may offer cost efficient reproduction of soccer match-play demands, with arguably the best control for uniform exertion to reduce injuries during simulations. This paper is the first narrative review to discuss numerous protocols used in research towards reproducing soccer match-play demands in a lab-controlled environment. 

 

Keywords: Lab Controlled Soccer, Match- Play Simulations, Match -Play demands, mimic 


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ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SPORT RELATED POLYGENIC PROFILE AND MAGNITUDE OF PHYSICAL PERFORMANCES CHANGES FOLLOWING RESISTANCE TRAINING AMONG NOVICE FIELD HOCKEY ATHLETES
Elin Elisa Khairul, Teh Lay Kek, Mohd Zaki Salleh, Raja Mohammed Firhad Raja Azidin, & Sarina Md. Yusof*

Abstract

Background: Studies have shown that inter-individual variation in response to resistance training is attributed to genetic variation. Aim: To correlate total genotype scores (TGS) with the magnitude of physical performances (skeletal muscle mass, muscular strength, muscular power, performance decrement, and VO2max) change, following 8 weeks of resistance training. Methods: We included forty-five (N=45) participants (age = 16.53 ± .5 years old, body mass = 61.03 ± 6.67 kg, height = 1.67±.05 m) and randomly assigned into; high intensity resistance training (n=15), moderate intensity resistance training (n=15) and a control group (n=15). They were prescribed with the same upper and lower body exercise routines. Pre- and post-test physical performances were measured. Genotyping was conducted using in-house designed allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assays. TGS for nine SNPs: Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, ACE rs1799752; Alpha-acitin-3, ACTN3 rs1815739; Adrenergic Receptor B3, ADRB3 rs4994; Angiotensinogen, AGT rs699; Bradykinin Receptor B2, BDKRB2 rs1799722; Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha, PPARA rs4253778; Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Co-Activator 1-Alpha, PPARGC1A rs8192678; Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor, TRHR rs7832552 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, VEGF rs1870377,were calculated and assigned with strength-power and endurance quality. Pearson correlation analysis was employed to investigate the correlation between TGS, and magnitude of physical performances change following intervention. Result: There is a significant correlation between strength-power TGS with lower body muscular strength (r= .65, p<.01) and power (r= -.69, p<.01) following moderate intensity resistance training. Conclusion: In this study, it is demonstrated that participants with higher strength-power TGS, gained greater lower body strength improvement and lesser muscular power decrement even with moderate intensity as compared to high intensity resistance training. Therefore, personalising training based on athlete’s genetic profile may optimise performance. 

 

Keywords: Field hockey; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Resistance; Training. 


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GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE PERCEPTIONS OF SPORT COACHING STANDARDS AMONG MALAYSIAN SPORT COACHES
Eng Hoe Wee, Shane Delwin Fernandez, Wei Fong Cheng, & Hui Yin Ler

Abstract

This study examined the perception of Malaysian sport coaches on the sport coaching standards (SCS). A total of 384 coaches (age = 28.84+4.02 years; male = 67.7%, female = 32.3%) responded to the survey via an online google document. Almost 59% of the respondents were      club level coaches with 42% having 1-3 years coaching experience. Majority (56.2%) of the coaches was involved in soccer, frisbee, dodgeball, and futsal. The adopted research instrument consisted of 40 coaching standards and were categorized into eight domains. The items were measured through an 11-point (0-10) Likert scale. The results suggested that Malaysian coaches perceived the 40 standards (minimum = 6.94 and maximum = 9.00) as knowledge and abilities that effective coaches must possess. As for the domains, Malaysian coaches ranked the top three domains to be ‘Growth and Development’, ‘Teaching and Communication’, and ‘Skills and Tactics’ respectively. Similar ranking of the domain was also reported according to gender. Even though coaching education in terms of sport specific and sport science programs is in place in Malaysia, it is imperative for Malaysian Sport Coaching Academy and National Sport Associations to incorporate some coaching standards in their relevant coaching education curriculum.  

 

Keywords: Sport coaching standards, coaching education, coaching effectiveness, coaching accreditation program. 

 

 


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PREFERRED SADDLE HEIGHTS EFFECTS ON PEDALLING KINEMATICS AMONG SKILLED AND LESS SKILLED CYCLISTS
Hosni Hasan, Nukhairunnisatul Aina Mohd Fadzli, Sabri Taib, Mohd Syrinaz Azli, & Mohd Azim Nural Azhan

Abstract

 

 The purpose of this study was to compare the movement kinematics between skilled and less skilled cyclists based on their preferred saddle heights. 12 recreational cyclists were recruited for this study, and they were required to perform 10-minute cycling using their own bike (mounted on a bike trainer) which consists of a 4-minute warm-up, and continue with a 6-minute cycle at 90-100 rotations per minute with their preferred saddle height. Reflective markers were placed at the joint involved such as hip, knee, and ankle to assess change in the segment and joint motion parallel to the 90° of the crank cycle (3'o clock) during the study. Additional variables such as cadence and power (watt) were recorded for monitoring purposes. Results showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) in hip and ankle range of motion during pedalling between skilled and less-skilled recreational cyclists. It can be concluded, significantly better range of motion on the hip and ankle performed by the skilled cyclist may be due to suitable saddle height and it might lead to effectiveness on cycling efficiency.    

 

Keywords: Movement Kinematics, Skilled, Less-skilled, Cyclists, Joint Angle, Pedalling Ki


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RELIABILITY AND CONSTRUCT VALIDITY EVIDENCE OF STANDING LONG JUMP (SLJ) AMONG STUDENTS WHO HAVE VISUAL DISABILITIES
Nagoor Meera Abdullah, Mawarni Mohamed, Mohamad Nizam Mohamed Shapie, & Zarizi Ab Rahman

Abstract

In sports, physical activities, and daily life activities muscular leg power is very essential. Standing Long Jump (SLJ) is a reliable field test that usually been to assess leg power. The purpose of this study is to determine the objectivity, reliability, construct validity evidence among students who are visually-impaired. The evidence of the objectivity, reliability, validity, norm need to establish in the particular population to support the interpretation of the outcome. This study involved 35 male subjects who have visual disabilities and two raters for reliability and validity. The ICC, test-retest, and Pearson Correlation was used to determine the objectivity and reliability of the SLJ. Independent sample t was used to determine the construct validity evidence. Findings showed the ICC was high among male rates (.97). The consistency of the instrument also excellent among subjects (r = .81). Paired sample t-test showed t value (M= 1.76, SD= 0.293) (t (34) = 13.32, p = .000 was significant. Findings showed there are significant different between the final test mean M= 1.76), SD = 0.293) is better than the initial test mean (M=1.68, SD= 0.298) for male subjects. The difference showed the SLJ has the construct validity evidence in this population. The need for having valid and reliable testing instruments will enhance the success of the evaluation and the interpretation for all subjects.  

 

Keywords: Objectivity, Reliability, Construct Validity, Standing Long Jump, Students who are Visually Impaired


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CARBOHYDRATE MOUTH RINSE IMPROVES MODERATE INTENSITY TREADMILL RUNNING IN COLLEGIATE ATHLETES
Nur Ema Hajirah Hamzah, Sharifah Maimunah Syed Mud Puad, Adam Linoby, Mohd Faridz Ahmad, & Muhammad Zulqarnain Mohd Nasir

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of  carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on self-selected running speeds, heart rate and psychological response during a 30-min treadmill run. Twelve endurance-collegiate male athletes (N=12) age 22.33 ± 0.63, mean height 169 ± 5.89 m, and mean body weight 62.57 ± 7.69 kg performed two trials that have one-week interval of crossover study. Each trial involved a 10-min warm-up at 60% HRmax followed by a 30-min run. The run was performed on an automated treadmill that allowed the spontaneous selection of speeds without manual input. Participants were asked to mouth rinsing with either a 6% CHO or taste-matched placebo (PLA) solution. Parameters measured include self-selected speed during treadmill running, heart rate and psychological responses (feeling arousal scale, feeling scale, gastrointestinal scale). Significant interaction between groups across experimental sessions were noted on three parameters (p<.05). The CHO mouth rinse group showed improvements of heart rate, feeling scale and feeling arousal scale compare to control group during treadmill running. These findings demonstrated that 6% CHO mouth rinse is effective in improving performance of moderate intensity running physiologically and psychologically. 

 

Keywords. CHO mouth rinse, moderate intensity running, physiology, psychology 

 

 


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A STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELLING APPROACH FOR VALIDATION OF ADVENTURE-BASED MENTAL TOUGHNESS INVENTORY (ABMTI)
Mohd Shariman Shafie, Md Amin Md Taff, Nik Jazwiri Johanis, Omar Firdaus Mohd Said, Hisyam Che Mat, Mustakim Hashim, Mohd Noorazlan Ab Aziz, & Mohamed Azizul Bin Mohamed Afandi

Abstract

There are numerous studies that have found adventure-based program intervention has potentially linked towards the development of psychological aspects, including mental toughness. This study aims to validate Adventure-based Mental Toughness Inventory (AbMTI) through SEM analysis. A total of 371 degree’s level students from several higher institutions were involved as respondents. The final valid data is 357 hence 14 respondents have been removed due to outliers in normality analysis. A total of 67-items representing 7 dimensions of AbMTI was analysed and purified. The data were analysed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Cronbach’s Alpha reliability. Through CFA measurement, the modification indices (MI) examination was conducted. Overall, the final analysis results from CFA-SEM indicates AbMTI has achieved a significant validation value. Four (4) validation analysis was applied such as standard loading (>.50), construct reliability (CR>.60), Cronbach Alpha (α>.70), and average variance extracted (AVE>.50).  The final AbMTI consisted of seven (7) constructs and 38-items were validated to tap adventure-based mental toughness. Findings from this study have confirmed AbMTI as valid instruments for assessing mental toughness. It is also considered as the new horizons in mental toughness measure. 

 

Keywords: Adventure-based program, Structural Equation Modelling (SEM), Confirmatory factor analysis, modification indices (MI), reliability, validity 

 

 


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JOB STRESS AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AMONG OFFICERS IN PUBLIC SPORTS INSTITUTIONS
Rozita Abdul Latif, Maizan Mohd Nor, Siti Aishah Wahab, Azlina Zid, & Farah Zakiah Khairil Anuar

Abstract

Employees are the most critical assets of an organisation, but they experience stress in their job, resulting in physical and mental health problems that affect their performance. The impact of job stress on employee performance is an area of concern for organisations. Job stress affects employees who have work demands and pressures beyond their knowledge and ability to cope. Stressful workers incur healthcare costs due to stress-related illnesses that affect their work performances. The impact of stress on employees' performance and productivity of organisations caused the initiation of this research. The stress and job performance of sports officers are unknown. The study examined the impact of stress on the job performance of Malaysian sports officers to contribute to the filling of this knowledge gap. Three variables of job stress of role ambiguity, role conflict, and workload (Conant, 2016; Wijayanti & Fauzi, 2020) were used in the research. The methodology employed a questionnaire designed and administered to respondents and used descriptive and inferential statistics for the data analyses. The participants were 100 Malaysian sports officers, 30 were from the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), 20 were from the University College Shahputra, and 50 were from the Pahang Sports Council. All the participants completed a questionnaire that consisted of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ). The result showed that most employees had moderate stress (n=57, 59.4%), and 58.3% (n=56) of the sports officers showed average work performance. It also showed a significant relationship between role ambiguity, role conflict, and workload and employee job stress, and the stress negatively affected their job performance (r=-0.927, p= 0.01). The results of this study are expected to contribute to an understanding of how job stress affects sports officers' performance. The management of organisations can use the findings to reduce job stress to enhance employees' wellbeing and productivity. For example, the management of Malaysian sports organisations could use how stress affects employee performance to develop policies and implement strategies to reduce job stress and improve employees' wellbeing and productivity. Findings from this study may also assist various human resource practitioners, researchers, and higher education institutions to build relevant policies to reduce employee stress to achieve a sustainable work-life balance practice within sports institutions. In addition, this study will also be used as a guide to researchers in the future. For example, it could be extended to organisations outside the sports industry and explore how occupation, years of employment, ethnicity, participation in physical activity, religion, and culture affect employees' stress and job performance.   Keywords: job stress, role ambiguity, role conflict, employee workload


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PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES DURING MOVEMENT CONTROL ORDER AMONG GIFTED AND TALENTED STUDENTS
Siti Nazariah Abdul Razak, Tajul Arifin Muhamad, & Wan Rezawana Wan Daud

Abstract

Physical activity is one of the forms of exercise that contributes to a healthy lifestyle. Physical activity must be done consistently so that fitness levels can be maintained. The practice of continuous physical activity has a good effect. Constraints of physical activity affect body fitness as well as long-term effects on individual health. The implementation of movement control orders implemented by the government has affected the involvement of individuals in performing physical activities especially involving outdoor movements. The purpose of this study is to examine the level and differences in the implementation of physical activities based on gender and location of gifted and talented (GnT) students. The study comprises of 42 males and 43 females; age 13 years old. Questionnaires were used for data collection. The finding revealed that 82.4% of student involved with physical activity and 58.8% choose housework as activity. Results also showed that there are 17.6% of the respondents felt unhappy to perform any physical activities. Using a univariate analysis, the study showed that there were 47.1% students in this study take 30 to 60 minutes per day and 36.5% 3 to 4 days per weeks doing physical activities. Using multivariate analysis, the study showed that there is significant difference in frequency when performing physical activities based on location among gifted & talented students (p< .05). This shows that gifted & talented students are also aware of the need to do physical activities even during the Movement Control Order (MCO) period. Performing continuous physical activity not only maintains and enhances fitness but also forms intelligent emotions and minds. 

 

Keywords: Gifted and Talented (GnT), physical activities, Movement Control Orders (MCO) 

 

 


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